Pgs 504-507
Channel- manmade canals for water
example: Royal Canal in Ireland
Hydrosphere- water on,under,and over the surface of the planet
example: Earth
Pore Spaces- percent of the volume of rock that is oopen space; amount
of water rock contains
Reservoir- area where water is reserved for later use
example: Jung Hua Dam on Dam Han River in Taiwan

Erosional- displacement of soilds by wind, water or ice in a downward slope
example: wheat field in Washingtion State University
Sinkholes- hole on surface caused by removal of soil
example: Georgia Tech, Atlanta

external image seegrotte1.jpg

this is a picture of a subterranean in europe.subterranean-existing, occurring, or done under the earth's surface.

external image seasonal_precipitation1_e.jpgthis picture shows different forms of precipitation.precipitation- rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to the ground.

external image Groundwater-pollution02.jpgthis picture shows the effects pollution has on groundwater and how it travels.groundwater-water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock.external image lrifflefleming.jpg Photo of Fleming Creek: the watershed of Fleming Creek has less than 10% impervious surfaces.impervious-not allowing fluid to pass through
external image groundwater.jpg
this picture shows the location of the soil moisture belt and what surrounds it.belt of soil moisture- contains plant roots and water available for plant growthexternal image topography.gifTopography: Shows surface regions.

external image unconfined.jpgzone of aeration: Zone below the surface. An opening filled with air and water.

external image 5002212f1.gifPermeability: ability of water to tramit fluid.

gaining stream illustration
gaining stream illustration
gaining stream: Streams that recieve ground water.

losing stream illustration
losing stream illustration
Losing stream: Stream loosing water.

external image recharge.gifsaturated zone: below ground opening filled with water.

surface_tension_pic.pngsurface tension

  • a surface of liquid that behaves like a plastic sheet.( it allows insects to walk on water)

transpiration_pic.pngtranspiration- the evaporation of water from plants leaves, stems, and roots.

water_table_pic.gifwater table
  • - it is at the surface where water pressure is the same as the atmospheric pressure.

  • an area of soil underneath the water table.

  • - it is the downward movement of water through soil.

capillary_fringe_pic.gifcapillary fringe -
  • - a sub layer where ground water seeps up from the water table to fill up pores.


specific retention. the ratio of the volume of water the rock or sediment will
retain against the pull of gravity to the total volume of the rock

aquitard, which is an impermeable layer along an aquifer

aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well.


voids- empty space ex: shells
vesicles- contains water; small cavity formed in volcanic rock by gas bubbles during solidification
ex: in ground

external image geology.jpgTransmit: to move from one to another

external image ex2.gifSpecific Yield: ratio of volume of water that a mass of rock or soil will yield by gravity to the volume of that mass, as a percentage

Image:Well sorted vs poorly sorted porosity.svg
Image:Well sorted vs poorly sorted porosity.svg

An illustration of the effects of sorting on the overall porosity of a porous media. The black shapes represent solids, the blue represents pore spaces.
porosity- measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction

external image cavities-calcite-ob_small.jpghis rock is an example of a cavity caused by dissolution.cavity-an empty space within a solid objectexternal image rocksort.jpg
this picture shows sorting of rocks.sorting-computing the arrangement of data in a prescribed sequence


hydgrad.gif hydraulic gradient is a vector gradient between two or more hydraulic head
measurements over the length of the flow path

Heterogeneous means that something (an object or system) consists of a diverse
range of opposite items.

springs- point where groundwater flows out of the ground
ex:Machinac Island, Michigan

annual runoff- amount of water running over the land surface during the year ex: Africa
discharge- to emit; pour ex: stream

perched water table- the surface where the groundwater pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure.
Hot springs- produced by heated groundwater from earth's crust ex: Green Dragon, Yellowstone
Thermal- column of rising air in lower altitudes of Earth's atmosphere

external image drawdown.gifDrawdown: Reduction in account equity from a trade or series of trades

external image pict2922.jpgDepression:An area that is sunk below its surroundings

external image cone-of-depression.gifCone of depression: in an aquifer when ground water is pumped from a well
external image fig2-10.gifhydraulic gradient: Groundwater flows from points of high elevation and pressure to points of low
external image dice-all.jpgheterogeneous: diffrent types

external image geotherm_geysers_cmyk.jpgyellowstone national park is known mostly for its geysers.geyser-a hot spring in which water intermittently boils, sending a tall column of water and steam into the air.

external image cheltenham-garden-well-xg.jpgsome people can only get fresh water from wells.well- a shaft sunk into the ground to obtain water, oil, or gas.external image irrigation.jpg

irrigation systems are used a lot in order to give crops water thuroughly.irrigation-supply water to (land or crops) to help growth, typically by means of channels.
external image plaidm2.jpgthis picture appears to be fluctuating before your eyes, but it is really just a mind trick.Fluctuate-rise and fall irregularly in number or amount

Pg 515-519


non-flowing artesian well- a free flowing water well

equilibrium shows no tendency to alter over time

Artesian: rising to the surface under pressure

Aquifer: underground bed or layer of earth, gravel, or stone that contains water

Fluctuate-rise and fall irregularly in number or amount external image A4artwel.jpg
this diagram shows how an artesian well works.artesian wells flow by themselves; the pressure forces the water out of the well.
external image wakimizu_560.jpg

this shows a picture of a beautiful spring.springs-a place where water or oil wells up from an underground source, or the basin or flow formed in such a way external image New%20telecom%20conduits%20to%20Crisler%20%28north%29.jpg

conduits are used in many various places.Conduits-a channel for conveying water or other fluid

recahrge-the replenishment of an aquifer by the absorption of water.

external image Photo7.jpgUnconsolidated Sediments: loosly packed rock/gravel/sand etc.

external image TPW-2003-042.jpgHomogenous: same kind of nature, or consisting of the same parts

tbrito_nonrenewable_fossil_fuel.jpgnon-renewable-non renewable are resources and minerals that you can not use again and have impact on eatth such as sea level

tbrito_subsidence.jpgsubsidence-is motion of a surface as it shifts downward

p. 519-523


contamination is the uncontrolled distribution of radioactive material
in a given environment.


Hazardous and toxic substances are defined as those chemicals present in the
workplace which are capable of causing harm.

sewage: waste that passes through sewers
ex- sewage from Israeli settlement

percolates: to pass through a porous substance or small hole

external image dsc01498-gina-excavating-rock-feature.jpgExacavations: man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in an earth surface formed by earth removal

external image mitchell2.gifCalcium Carbonate: Chemical that also occurs in limestone and marble

external image plateaus.gif
this shows different asssimilations throughout the united states.Assimilate to absorb and integrateexternal image purification.jpgthis picture shows how drip water can be purified.Purification-rid (something) of an unwanted element

Karst topography is a landscape shaped by the dissolution of a layer or layers
of soluble bedrock, usually carbonate rock such as limestone or dolomite.


A sinkhole, also known as a sink, shake hole, swallow hole, swallet, doline or
cenote, is a natural depression or hole in the surface topography

caverns: large cave, underground chamber
ex-Linclon Caverns

subterranean: under water, below surface of earth
subtarrean.jpgex: inside a cave is sub. lake
dripstone: the form of calcium carbonate found in stalactites and stalagmites

148209863_c6905794fe.jpgex: Wallenstein Castle, Prague

external image erosion-sink.jpgSinks: drop in level

external image karst_china.gifTower Karst: An area of irregular limestone in which erosion has produced fissures
external image 3316831.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=11B127B063386F611DBA260FD265283CA55A1E4F32AD3138
this picture shows an optical illusion type of conical.conical- having the shape of a cone.external image 21.jpgstilagmites are often found in caves.Stalagmites-a mound or tapering column rising from the floor of a cave, formed ofcalcium salts deposited by dripping water and often uniting with a stalactite.

external image column1.jpgthis geologic column is located in colorado.column- an upright pillar, typically cylindrical and made of stone or concrete,supporting an entablature, arch, or other structure or standing alone as a monument

tiffany_brito_speleotherms.jpgspeleotherms-when discharge or carbon dioxide may alter waters ability to hold minerals in solution carrying solutes to precipitate. these precipitates may form speleotherms

tbrito_stalactities.jpgstalactites-is a type of speleotherm that hangs from ceiling or wall of limestone caves. sometimes referred to as a dripstone

sodastrawtbritoo.jpgsoda straw-is a hollow on the insdie and has water dripping though it over time the inside cloges with calcite causing the stalcite to grow larger