504-507
Channel-
the bed of a waterway

Ex. The Rideau Canal Waterway
external image channel.jpg

hydrosphere-
Water vapor in the earth’s atmosphere
Ex. On the earth
external image Revised_Hydrosphere.jpg

pore spaces-
Holes in an area
Ex. Sponge
external image porosity.jpg

reservoir-
a natural or artificial place where water is collected and or stored for use
Ex. Yellowstone National park
external image Hollywood_Reservoir_DWP_Map.gif

erosional-surface of the earth is worn away by the action of water, glaciers, etc
Ex. Reef
external image geosystems16-12.jpg

sinkholes-
a natural hole in the land where the land sinks
Ex.Floridas major sinkholes
external image sinkhole.jpg

subterranean-
existing or situated underground
Ex. Underground railroad
external image 50175918.JPG

precipitation-
water evaporates
Ex. Rain
external image precipitation_profile_large.jpg

Groundwater-

Water that is under the surface of the ground, it mostly consists of surface water that has been seeped down
Example: Main use of groundwater is for irrigation uses, drinking-water and other public uses, and for supplying domestic water to people who do not receive public-supply water.
external image Groundwater%2520Locations.jpg

Evaporate-

To change from a liquid or solid to a vapor; to give of moisture
Example: Water that sits in a water bottle for some time eventually evaporates
external image 00000039.gif


Impervious-
Not allowing penetration or passage
Example: Surface run-off is a major component of the soft water of rivers in areas of impervious geology and may be highly cloudy(turbid)
external image 10-20impervious.gif

Belt of soil moisture-

The upper subdivision of the unsaturated zone, it is limited above by the land surface and below by the intermediate belt.
Example: Soil moisture conditions for the many different grain and oilseed crops heading into spring seeding were considered to be in good shape in kmost areas of the Canadian prairies according to the Canadian Wheat Boards Weather summary for the week ended March 28.
external image groundwater.jpg

Infiltration-
The seepage of water into soil or a rock
Example: The greatest factor controlling infiltration is the amount and characteristics (intensity, duration, etc.) of precipitation that falls as rain or snow
external image suds_diagrams_infiltration.gif


Transpiration-
The passage of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular system to the atmosphere
Example: Studies have revealed that about 10 percent of the moisture found in the atmosphere is released by plants through transpiration.
external image transpiration.jpg


Zone of saturation- The part of a ground water system in which all of the spaces between soil and rock material are filled with water.
Example: Soil pores being filled with water
external image unconfined.jpg


Water table-
The planar, underground surface beneath which earth materials, as soil or rock, are saturated with water.
Example: Water that is above the water table will drain downwards; a spring forms where the water table meets the surface of the ground.
external image unconfinedb.gif


Capillary fringe-
The zone above the water table and below the boundary of saturation where the soil is saturated but the pressures are less than atmospheric
Ex:oceans
external image fig04.gif


Surface tension-
Molecules get attracted to the liquid’s surface; a barrier is created between the air and the liquid.
Ex: in a cylinder
external image surface_tension.jpg



Zone of aeration- Zone immediately below ground surface, in which openings are partly filled with air and partially with water trapped by molecular attraction
Ex.earth
external image aquifer.jpg


Topography-
The study of relations among its man-made and natural features
Ex.map
external image front-flip-topography-300.gif


Permeability-
The ability of a material to transmit fluid through its pores
Ex.membrane
external image 75022723.JPG

Gaining Streams- Streams that receive groundwater discharge
Ex. Any stream gaining water
external image gainingb.gif

Losing Streams- Losing water to the groundwater system
Ex. Any stream that is losing water
external image losingb.gif

Saturated Zone- Portion below the earth’s surface that is saturated with water
Ex. Phreatic Zone
external image recharea.gif



507-510

Voids-
The empty space between grains in the soil or a rock.
Ex: Voids located in high-density environments are smaller than voids located in low-density spaces of the universe
external image fig53.gif


Pore spaces-
They are holes (pores) in the soil that water can get into
Ex: Pore spaces in the snow
external image porosity.jpg


Vesicle-
Small intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances
Ex: Lipid vesicles
external image seminal_vesicle_40x.jpg


Porosity-
The percentage of the total volume of soil that consists of pore space
Ex: Amount of water stored in pore spaces in soil
external image 800px-Well_sorted_vs_poorly_sorted_porosity.svg.png


Cavities-
Large holes curved into tree trunks for use as nesting and roosting sites
Ex: large holes in tree trunks; teeth cavities
external image b_mauritius_parakeet_cavity.jpg

Sorting-
The process of organizing, like from size, shape, or density.
Ex: Sorting the papers in alphabetical order; sorting soil samples like soil worms live in or farm soil etc.
external image Sand_sorting_tower.jpg


Permeability-
The ability of a material to transmit fluid through its pores
Ex.membrane
external image 31455.JPG

Transmit-To transfer or move
Ex. Move something from place to place
external image IMG_0171.jpg

Specific yield-Ratio of a volume of water
Ex. In a cylinder
external image ex2.gif

Specific Retention- hold against a pull of gravity
Ex.volcanic ash
external image AD320E17.gif

Aquitard- Rock having low permeability
Ex.confining bed
external image 360px-Aquifer_en.svg.png

Aquifers- undergtound layer of water
Ex.sandstone
external image confined-unconfined-aquifer.gif


511-514

Springs-
Ex. Hot Springs Arizona
external image WillowcreekPark%2520SilverSprings.JPG

Thermal-Caused by heat or temperature.
Ex.Thermal underwear
external image prod_thermal_2.gif


Geysers-A natural hot spring that intermittently ejects a column of water and steam into the air.
Ex. Strokkur Geyser, Iceland
external image geotherm_geysers_cmyk.jpg

Well-Water keeper
Ex.The well had water in it so we got our water supply from there
external image well_large.gif

Irrigation-the artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops
Ex.Watering the crops
external image photo_irrigation3.jpg

Fluctuate-to change continually
Ex.the time is fluctuating
external image fluctuateChart.gif







515-519

Artesian-A Geological structural feature in which water is limited under pressure
Ex: the oldest and largest investor-owned public water utility is Delaware
external image Great%2520Artesian%2520Basin_balance_Balance_2.gif


Aquifer-an underground layer of water bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials like gravel or sand, silt or clay, from which groundwater can be usefully pulled out by using water well.

Ex: The Ogallala Aquifer (High Plains Aquifer) is a vast yet shallow underground Water Table located under the Great Plaines in the United States
aquifer
aquifer












Friction-

Surface resistance to relative motion; the rubbing of the surface of one body against that of another
Ex: You rubbing your hands up and down causes friction
external image friction.gif


Non flowing artesian well-

Occurs when the pressure is not great enough to force the water out of the well
Ex: One is located in Colombia County, Georgia
external image aquifer.gif


Flowing Artesian Well-Water coming from the ground from and Artesian Aquifer
Ex.Aquifer system in Brunswick Arizona
external image gusher.jpg

Springs-Point where groundwater flows out of the ground
Ex. Hot Springs Arizona
external image WillowcreekPark%2520SilverSprings.JPG

Conduits-A pipe or channel for conveying fluids, such as water
Ex.Water pipe
external image electrical%2520conduits.jpg

Recharge-charge again
Ex.Charger
external image 10_000_000_Candle_Power_Recharge_Spotlight.jpg

519-523
Sewage-
To cause to resemble
Ex.On the sides of streets
external image SewageSpill002DF.jpg

Percolates-To cause to pass through a porous substance or small holes
Ex.key in the ignition
external image Percolate.jpg

Assimilate-
To take in and incorporate as ones own
Ex.Adoption
external image assim.gif

Purification-The act of cleaning
Ex. Water filter
external image Omega_Reverse_Osmosis_Water_Purification_System.jpg

Contamination-The act of polluting
Ex. Smoke
external image cameroon%2Bsarah%2B362.jpg

Hazardous-full of risk
Ex. Skydiving
external image HazardousWaste.jpg

Excavations-The act of making hollow by removing the inside
Ex.easter eggs
external image Southern_Temple_Mount_Excavations_from_south_tb_n060900.JPG

Calcium Carbonate-White, tasteless, water-insoluble powder
Ex.4% of earths crust
external image Calcium_Carbonate.jpg


523-527

Caverns-An underground chamber produced by solution activity in limestone/
Ex.Cave in
poland
external image LincolnCaverns_20070301_495Crop.jpg


Subterranean
-Exisiting, situated, or operating below the surface of the earth.
Ex.Volcano
external image pilipinas2007_141.JPG


Dripstone-A stone molding using a drip
Ex.cave speleothems
external image luray3_6.jpg

Speleothems- Secondary mineral deposit formed in caves.

Ex.In any cave
external image IMG_5542.jpg


Stalactites-
Hangs from the ceiling of the wall or cave
Ex.in any cave
external image stalactites.jpg

Soda Straw-Speleothem in the form of a hollow mineral tube.
Ex.found in any cave
external image DCP00371.JPG

Conical-Cone shaped drip
Ex.found in any cave
external image SIA1936.jpg

Stalagmites-Speleothem that rises from the floor
Ex.found in any cave
external image Bermuda1-143.jpg

Column-Vertical architectural support
Ex.Found in any cave
external image COLUMN%2520INSIDE%2520CAVE%2520SYSTEM_GEOLOGY%2520CLASS.jpg

Karst topography-landscape shaped by the dissolution of a layer or layers of soluble bedrock.
Ex.Carlsbad Caverns National Park
external image karst.gif


Sinkholes-
Depression produced where soluble rock has been removed by groundwater.
Ex.gradually developed or form abruptly,
Florida
external image BoyleCo_Aug2001_1.jpg


Sinks-
depression in region kind of like a sinkhole
Ex.gradually developed or form abruptly
external image vichy_rd_filled_sink(s_exposure)_sm.jpg

Tower Karst- Karst landscape
Ex.Marcus Gillepsie
external image karst_china.gif